A relatively flat and smooth rock, limestone is usually a white in colouring, but can be obtained in different colours and hues. It can make an excellent addition for paved section of the garden.
- The stone can originate from Southern Europe, (however, this may not be compatible with UK climates). (ref) From these sources, the stone will not travel enormous distances and will, therefore, limit the amount of carbon emitted from transport.
- The stone can last a long time, (ref) which means a reduction of materials in the long run as replacements will not need to be purchased as often.
- The material can be recycled or repurposed. (ref)
- Limestone can be damaged by acid rain. (ref)
- It was found that quarries in Thailand contaminated soil, air and water, whilst also producing a lot of carbon. (ref)
- Groundwater can be affected from limestone quarrying if it. (ref)
- Biodiversity is also hindered, depending on where the quarry is located. (ref)
- Dust from the quarries and transportation of limestone can become an issue for an environment. (ref)
A strong stone that can last a long time, limestone can be recycled. These two factors demonstrate environmental benefits as the stone will not be replaced for a long time, reducing the need for new, materials and using a recycled stone will have the same effect. However, there are downsides to limestone, one of the most notable being its vulnerability to acid rain. Along with this, there are a range of environmental issues, such as biodiversity reduction, groundwater pollution and dust escaping into the environment. Due to this, alternates such as local Sandstone or Granite may be worth consideration.